Hellow Word 2

The Clearwater BioLogic sulfate remediation system was developed and tested in northern Minnesota, where a century of iron and taconite mining has left excess sulfide in abandoned mine-pit lakes. In the mid-1960s, area lakes and rivers were found to contain rising sulfate levels, and at times acidic runoff and dissolved metals. These substances were harming ecosystems, including the wild rice that grows in some of those waters. In 1973 Minnesota established a strict sulfate standard (10 milligrams per liter) to protect wild rice, but it was rarely enforced for lack of a cost-effective remediation method. Over time, reverse osmosis systems were developed to remediate sulfate, but they were deemed prohibitively expensive by the mining companies. The stalemate persisted for decades.

The Clearwater BioLogic sulfate remediation system was developed and tested in northern Minnesota, where a century of iron and taconite mining has left excess sulfide in abandoned mine-pit lakes. In the mid-1960s, area lakes and rivers were found to contain rising sulfate levels, and at times acidic runoff and dissolved metals. These substances were harming ecosystems, including the wild rice that grows in some of those waters. In 1973 Minnesota established a strict sulfate standard (10 milligrams per liter) to protect wild rice, but it was rarely enforced for lack of a cost-effective remediation method. Over time, reverse osmosis systems were developed to remediate sulfate, but they were deemed prohibitively expensive by the mining companies. The stalemate persisted for decades.